Saturday, May 23, 2020

Definition, Usage, and Examples of Italics

Italics  is a style of typeface in which the letters slant to the right:  This sentence is printed in italics. (If youre writing something out in longhand, the equivalent of italics would be underlining.) Apart from the uses cited below for titles and naming conventions, italics are used to give emphasis to words and phrases in a sentence. For example, the question, Are you going to wear that? takes on an entirely different meaning if you italicize the last word: Are you going to wear that? Fast Facts: Italics From the Latin for ItalyVerb: italicize.Pronunciation: ih-TAL-iks Using Italics With Style Guides Although its important to use italics appropriately in formal, academic  writing, italic type is not always available in less formal communications, such as in emails and text messages.  Journalism, medical writing, and a variety of other forms of professionally written materials rely on one of several style guides including Associated Press or AP Style, American Medical Association (AMA) Style, and the Chicago Manual of Style. In addition, many corporations, websites, and publishing companies have their own style guides that must be adhered to for written communications. The use of italics varies from style to style. (For example, in AP Style, titles are put inside quotation marks rather than being italicized.) General Usage For books and academic work, the following general rules apply, however, its always a good idea to check if adherence to a particular style guide is required prior to embarking on any writing project. Italicize the titles of complete works: Albums and CDs:  1989  by Taylor SwiftBooks: To Kill a Mockingbird  by Harper LeeMagazines and journals (print and online): Sports Illustrated, Slate, and  Journal of LinguisticsNewspapers: The New York TimesMovies: The MartianPlays:  A Raisin in the Sun  by Lorraine HansberrySoftware programs:  Microsoft PowerPoint  Television programs: Doctor WhoVideo games:  Grand Theft Auto VWorks of art: Nighthawks  by Edward Hopper The titles of comparatively short works—songs, poems, short stories, essays, and episodes of TV programs—should be enclosed in quotation marks. As a general rule, italicize the names of aircraft, ships, and trains; foreign words used in an English sentence; and words and letters discussed as words and letters: These are the voyages of the starship Enterprise.—Title sequence from the original Star Trek series From 1925 to 1953, a passenger train named the Orange Blossom Special brought vacationers to sunny Florida from New York. There is no danger that Titanic will sink. The boat is unsinkable and nothing but inconvenience will be suffered by the passengers.—Phillip Franklin, Vice President of White Star Line Come kiss me, and say goodbye like a man. No, not good-bye, au revoir.From Chats With Jane Clermont by William Graham Every word she writes is a lie, including and and the.—Mary McCarthy on Lillian Hellman As a general rule, use italics to emphasize words and phrases—but dont overwork this device: Then I started reading this timetable I had in my pocket. Just to stop lying. Once I get started, I can go on for hours if I feel like it. No kidding.  Hours.—From  The Catcher in the Rye by J. D. Salinger, Observations Italics rarely fail to insult the readers intelligence. More often than not they tell us to emphasize a word or phrase that we would emphasize automatically in any natural reading of the sentence.—From The Philosophy of Punctuation.  Opera, Sex, and Other Vital Matters by Paul Robinson, University of Chicago Press Think of italics as butterflies that might swoop across the page, allow them to flit about, land here and there, softly; gently; dont treat them as a blanket that must spread itself across the entire page. The butterfly approach will bring a dash of color; the blanket approach will darken everything.—From Nobles Book of Writing Blunders (and How to Avoid Them) by William Noble, Writers Digest Books Underlining is to... handwritten papers what italics are to more formal publishing... Today the only widespread use of underlined text is to denote clickable links in Web documents. (The newspaper convention, which I use as a newspaperman and which was also a response to a technical inability to use italics, is quotation marks for book, movie, and other titles.)—From The Elephants of Style by Bill Walsh, McGraw Hill

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Do Dreams Hold Meaning - 1284 Words

Do Dreams Hold Meaning? When you dream, do you ever wonder if your dream holds meaning? Do you wake up in confusion, fear, wonder or feeling content? It seems as though the conversation about dreams and what they mean has blossomed into being a frequent topic of discussion. Have you ever noticed when you walk into a bookstore, there is an entire section dedicated to books about dreams? These books are to answer all of your questions, and solve all of your problems and worries. They are not always written by people who are superstitious, but by psychologists studying the subject. Could be combined Many people find comfort in these books, while others find it ridiculous and unreliable. It is notn’t unheard of to seek out advice about your dreams. For centuries, people have been going to investing in fortune-tellers or paying someoneor psychiatrists to identify interpret dreams for theirthat may reveal their futures. Because of the growing interest (need a transition here) Mmany psychologists have started to ask their patients about their dreams, trying to find an answer that could solve their real-life problems. But, in reality, â€Å"the meaning is in the eye of the beholder- not in the dream itself,† (Goleman, 1984). While dreams do hold meaning to the waking life, they are filled with hidden symbolic meanings as interpreted by the dreamer. Many people have the same type of dreams, so when researchers give a broad interpretation of what a certain thing/person/action represents,Show MoreRelatedA Dream Within a Dream Analysis907 Words   |  4 PagesA Dream within a Dream By Edgar Allen Poe The poem â€Å"A Dream within A Dream† by Edgar Allen Poe is about how it feels to lose your hopes and your dreams all at once in a very sorrowful and frustrating manner. In the first stanza he is asking the reader if it matters that his purpose, motivation, and his love has been taken away by life itself and whether or not it was worth it. Although, with the lines â€Å"All that we see or seem is but a dream within a dream† has the meaning that what he thinksRead MoreThe Dreams Of Dreams By Carl Jung1632 Words   |  7 Pagesduring the night, dreams occur. Some remember more than others. However, a dream is always present even if you may think it is not. The curiosity of dreams is what started the popularity of dream interpretation. People wanted to know what they meant and how they were getting there which drove psychologists to go out and study them. (The Dream Experience Chapter 1) Dreams are a very complex topic because of the various meanings for their appear ance. Theories vary from dream simply being apartRead MoreA long and stressful day can take a toll on the mind. The mind in return, takes a toll on itself.1100 Words   |  5 Pagesthousands of years, the belief that dreams hold a secret meaning or message was believed since the beginning of history. Dream interpretations have dated back to 3000 B.C. Ancient Egyptian, Roman, and Greek civilizations would record their dreams believing they were significant to the meaning of their lives. The idea that dreams hold a secret message or can be foretold has been carried out to present day. â€Å"Centuries ago, people in many cultures believed dreams were presented by an outside force andRead MoreFreuds Interpretation of Dreams1176 Words   |  5 Pagesdiscontents, dreams, psychoanalysis and the unconscious. For this paper, I will be discussing Freud’s fundamentals of dreams, what dreams represents, how dreams are constructed and its significance while paying close attention to t he following areas of dreams, manifest and latent content, condensation and displacement, and censorship and repression. First, let examined the definition of dream according to Sigmund Freud â€Å"dream is the disguised fulfilment of a repressed wish. Dreams are constructedRead MoreDarkness Poem Analysis1452 Words   |  6 Pagessince everything he says is followed by an opposite. The idea that darkness conquers all in the end in Lord Byron’s poem is derailed because of his specific word choice and the chaos it brings to the poem’s overall meaning; the contradictory vocabulary completely cuts through any meanings and ultimately renders it as undecidable. My initial reading of this poem is that life has ceased or is ceasing to exist. Everything is deteriorating, people are trying their best to ignite light in a world of darknessRead MoreLinden Hills and the Struggles That Come with I Essay1442 Words   |  6 Pagesthe American dream is possible but while achieving this dream, it causes some people to sell themselves out. This is significant because it shows that if the prize to achieve the dream is the loss of one’s soul or compromise of one’s standards, the price is too high to pay. Third, Nedeed wants to preserve the integrity and value of Linden Hills but the power he holds goes to his head and he begins to care more about himself than others. This is relevant because life holds the most meaning and opportunityRead MoreEssay on Our Dreams Give Us Hope1169 Words   |  5 Pagesof the world, Man has been searching for the meaning of life. He has looked everywhere but often failed to find it. The reason to live is to s avor life and to live one filled with joy. This is another problem Man has often faced: how to be happy. Most of us think that we are happy when everyone else is proud of us, when we have achieved something for them or done something for the rest of the world. We strive to accomplish what others expect us to do, whether it is our parents, our friends, or evenRead MoreDream Catcher826 Words   |  4 PagesDream Catcher Dream catchers are highly respected in my household because we believe in their purpose and also we believe that they truly do work. I hope by the end of my essay you will completely understand what their purpose is and also why we value them in our household. I am going to tell you a little story and I am only going to tell you because it is winter and in our culture we can only pass on stories during the winter. Long ago in the ancient world of the Ojibwa Nation, the Clans wereRead MoreEssay about Poetry: Emotions in Words 1027 Words   |  5 PagesPoetry is an art form of expression and emotions through words. It encompasses the writer’s mood and point of view about a certain idea. Two poems that demonstrate the use of emotions in words are â€Å"Phenomenal Woman† by Maya Angelou, and â€Å"A Dream within a Dream†, by Edgar Allan Poe. Both of these poets are very important in the literary field even though their ways of writing contrast each other. Angelou is a revolutionist who is known around the world for her astounding stories of racism, familyRead MoreAnalysis Of The Dream By Langston Hughes905 Words   |  4 Pagescomposed by him; and the â€Å"Dream† was one of his poems that manifested the strong co nception of his type. The poet establishes intriguing repetition and strands that based on the comparison and the relationship between cause and effect that aids the emphasis on the significance of keeping dreams and send to readers the consequence of losing their dreams that are that life will be exhausted and meaningless deeply if not having the dream. People let keep tightly their own dream, continue hope and never

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Undocumented Students Free Essays

Undocumented immigrants are foreign nationals who enter the United States without authorization or enter legally but remain in the United States without authorization. Undocumented youth and students usually have no role in the decision to come to this country; they are usually brought to this country by their parents or relatives. Brought by their parents to the U. We will write a custom essay sample on Undocumented Students or any similar topic only for you Order Now S. as minors, many before they had reached their teens, they account for about one sixth of the total undocumented population. The United States Census Bureau estimates that in the year 2000, approximately 2. million undocumented youth under the age of eighteen were living in the United States. Some 65,000 undocumented students graduate from U. S. high schools each year. Illegal through no fault of their own, many undocumented students are honor students, athletes, student leaders, and potential professionals. As a result of their immigration status, these young people face more struggles than documented students, when looking to continue their education after high school. Struggles include not being eligible for federal money and not being legally able to obtain employment upon graduation. There is a conflict between Federal and State law regarding the eligibility of undocumented students for in-state tuition rates. Section 505 of the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 prohibits illegal aliens from receiving in-state tuition rates at public institutions of higher education. State and federal grants are awarded only to U. S. citizens or eligible non-citizens. To apply for a federal or state grant, one must complete the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA), which requires the student’s social security number. Federal student loans are also not available to undocumented students. Most high school seniors rely on federal money as most of their financial aid for college. Students see their peers receiving federal financial aid and do not know how they are supposed to go about looking for money. Then is the struggle of finding private money because some scholarships require that students have a social security number. Ultimately, the search of every senior student for college money is even harder for undocumented students because they do not have a social security number. Of the few illegal immigrants who overcome financial hurdles and graduate from American colleges, few can obtain jobs, creating a mall pool of unemployed illegal immigrants with college degrees, a minority within a minority. Applying for a job without legal status requires asking potential employers to sponsor them in obtaining American citizenship, something most employers are unlikely to do for job candidates. Most undocumented college graduates are ineligible for many professional careers. U ndocumented college graduates grow up in America, where they are taught to dream high and work hard to succeed in this nation but at the end of the day, those doors stop opening. Opportunity for advancement ends on graduation day, as undocumented college graduates try to find their way into a job market from which they are legally excluded. â€Å"When you’re in school you have a place in society, you’re a university student,† Jorge Garcia, DREAM Act supporter, said during an interview. â€Å"When you graduate, you’re just an immigrant again. † An immediate consequence, as a result of the extra work that undocumented students must put into their college application process, is that some students drop out of high school. These students find it easier to leave school and enter the working world. They are knowledgeable of the fact that, even with a college degree, they most likely will not find employment after graduation. Most undocumented students feel that beginning to work early in life is the only way they may become successful. It is estimated that only between 5 and 10 percent of undocumented high school graduates go to college. There is little incentive for them to finish high school, leading to high dropout rates. Thus, another consequence arises, the potential for them to become involved in gangs and illegal activities. Long term consequences include mental side effects. Cases of depression and suicide have resulted from a feeling of hopelessness for success. Suicide is the third leading cause of death in 15 to 24 year old Latinos, who make up the largest portion of undocumented students. A 2007 Center for Disease Control survey found that Latinos make up the largest portion of American high school students who tried to take their lives. It showed that 10. 2 percent of Latino high school student had tried to kill themselves, compared to 5. 6 percent of whites. Many undocumented immigrants are terrified of speaking to officials. There is a fear of deportation that makes many undocumented immigrant youth unwilling to seek depression treatment. Congress has not ignored undocumented students’ need for help in attending college and succeeding after college graduation. In 2001, Senators Orrin Hatch and Richard Durbin in the Senate, and Representatives Howard Berman and Chris Cannon in the House introduced the DREAM Act. The Development, Relief, and Education for Alien Minors Act (DREAM Act) addresses youth who were illegally brought to the United States but who have since grown up here, stayed in school, and kept out of trouble. To qualify for immigration relief under the DREAM Act, a student must have been continuously present in the United States for at least five years prior to enactment of the legislation or under fifteen years of age at the time of entry into the United States, and demonstrate good moral character. Once a qualifying student graduates from a U. S. high school, he or she is allowed to apply for conditional status that would authorize up to six years of legal residence. During this period, the student is required to graduate from a two year college, complete at least two years toward a four year degree, or serve in the United States military for at least two years. Permanent residence is granted at the end of the six year period if the student has met these requirements and has continued to maintain good moral character. Originally introduced in the Senate in 2001, the DREAM Act has fallen short of votes in Congress several times since. In its reintroduction, in 2007, it fell short by eight votes. More recently, the DREAM Act was reintroduced in the House and Senate in December 2010. With bipartisan support and President Barack Obama supporting the act, many undocumented students believe they are getting closer to their dreams of seeing the act pass. The number of undocumented students at the university level is low. Attending college, and even doing splendidly, does nothing to alter these students’ illegal status. The DREAM Act would offer a pathway to citizenship for many college students and members of the military. Supporters last year were unable to secure enough votes to prevent a filibuster of the bill. Supporters say it is inhumane and counterproductive to shun students who have come so far with so little. DREAM Act opponents of both houses of Congress say that undocumented students are looting limited educational resources that should go to citizens and legal residents. Republican Dana Rohrabacher, representative of Huntington Beach said, â€Å"I hope you return to your home country right away, and I hope you repay what you have spent of other people’s money. It’s a horrible crime. † Most American high school graduates get the opportunity to test their dreams and live their American story. However, a group of approximately 65,000 youth do not get this opportunity. They are a group of young people stained with the inherited title â€Å"illegal immigrant. † These young people have lived in the United States for most of their lives and want nothing more than to be recognized for what they are, Americans. Illegal students are not eligible to receive any type of federal or state financial aid or grant money. They are unable to access higher education and even if they do, they are not legally able to obtain employment upon graduation. The United States is missing out on talented workers, and is losing vital tax revenues and other economic contributions. How to cite Undocumented Students, Papers

Saturday, May 2, 2020

Comparative Study of Mutual Funds and Bank Deposits free essay sample

Comparison between mutual funds and fixed deposits is a long debate, especially when it comes to a comparison between fixed deposits and debt mutual funds. Even a few years ago, any conservative and risk averse investor would think investing in bank fixed deposits is better than mutual funds (debt or otherwise). Nevertheless, the market scenario has changed a lot in the recent years, and many a mutual funds family has come up with interest debt mutual fund schemes with guaranteed returns alongside capital appreciations. This makes the comparison between debt mutual funds versus fixed deposits more complex, and even the most risk averse investor (count my father! ) is led to think twice. That being said, whether you should invest in bank fixed deposits or debt mutual funds is no more a simple question as it used to be five-six years back, and needs a detailed examination and explanation. And, we at Mutual Funds Manager are here again to help you with a neutral comparison between fixed deposits and mutual funds. Arent we great? 🙂 So, mutual funds and fixed deposits, which is better? While only you can finally decide whether mutual funds or fixed deposit where to invest — depending on your risk taking abilities, return expectations, and investment horizons — let us try to analyse some key factors one by one and chalk out a comparison between bank FD and mutual funds. 1. Return on investments vary for mutual funds, but not bank deposits Needless to repeat, bank deposits offer you a fixed percentage of return, as would be agreed upon by the investor and the bank at the time of the investment. For example, if you put 50 thousand rupees in FD for 5 years and the agreed interest rate is 8% per annum, you will continue to enjoy the same interest rate throughout the tenure. On the other hand, debt mutual funds have no assured rate, and the return on investment for debt mutual funds depend completely on the market and the performance of the fund. Fluctuations in the money market impacts the NAV of the fund, thereby altering returns. Thus, a great advantage of bank fixed deposits is that, you will continue to earn the same interest rates even if the market goes down. Nevertheless, this very advantage of fixed deposits over mutual funds can actually turn out to be their great disadvantage. If the market goes up mutual funds will give more returns accordingly, but your FD will continue to yield in the same old rate. So, the actual question becomes, whether there is any chance of the Indian market going up in near future, especially following the recent recession? Yes, there is. At least, we think so. Market researches and predictions indicate that the Indian money market will go up in 2013, may get stagnant for a while in 2014, then taking another upward curve. Mutual Funds Managers Recommendation: For longer tenures, mutual funds are as good as fixed deposits, if not better. 2. Comparison between mutual funds fixed deposits: Inflation adjustment Inflation adjustment is a very important point while comparing mutual funds and fixed deposits. FDs dont come with inflation adjustment guarantees, and if the interest rate is lower than the inflation rate, you actually end up losing the value of your money. In the FY 2011-12, the inflation rate in India was 7%, while the interest rate for around 1 year tenure was something around 7% as well [6. % for ICICI and HDFC banks, 6. 75% for Citibank and HSBC, 7. 10% for Axis and Yes Bank and so on. Higher rates are there, but for lump-sum investments like 1 crore. ]. Thus, if you have invested in bank FDs for the last FY, you either failed to beat inflation or ended up with minimal inflation adjusted positive returns. On the other hand, at least half a dozen mutual funds yielded returns greater than 8% ( some as high as 12-14%), thereby giving you handsome inflation adjusted returns. Usually, mutual funds outrun inflation and always give positive, real returns. Mutual Funds Managers Recommendation: Unless your fixed deposits give high interest rates like 9-9. 5%, mutual funds are better. 3. Mutual funds and fixed deposits: Capital appreciation When it come to capital appreciation, mutual funds are better than fixed deposits, because of the equity investment. In longer time periods, market changes result in increasing interest rates. And, your mutual funds manager is there with all the expertise and professionalism to ensure a better capital appreciation. Mutual Funds Managers Recommendation: Debt funds. No second thought. 4. Mutual funds or fixed deposits, which one is more liquid? In terms of liquidity, these days both fixed deposits and mutual funds are almost same. Fixed deposits are actually meant for long lock in periods, but most banks allow premature withdrawals with a nominal penalty (usually 1%). The interest rate calculation for bank fixed deposit withdrawals is done on how long the money was parked. Mutual funds are equally liquid; you can take out any number of units within a couple of days. The return for premature withdrawal of mutual funds units is done on the prevalent NAV of the fund. Usually, there is an exit load of 1% for premature withdrawals before 1 year. Mutual Funds Managers Recommendation: Almost equal. For premature withdrawals beyond 1 year, mutual funds are slightly better because of nil exit load. 5. Risk factor of mutual funds and fixed deposits The only reason why most investors prefer fixed deposits to debt mutual funds is the assured return of the capital. On the other hands, returns from investments in mutual funds are subject to the volatility of the market, and may result in low or even negative returns. An investor should be wise enough to judge the quality of the investment instrument and thereby minimizing risk factors. Mutual Funds Managers Recommendation: For an extremely risk averse investor, fixed deposits are the only risk-free investment options. However, less risk means less return. Now, you decide! 6. Cost of investments in mutual funds and bank fixed deposits Investing in bank fixed deposits costs nothing. On the other hand, there is a minimum charge for mutual funds investments management and fund distribution, borne by the investor irrespective of returns. In other words, no matter whether your return on mutual funds investments is positive or negative, you have to bear an expense as the fees of fund management. Sometimes, entry loads are there as well, but quite rarely. Mutual Funds Managers Recommendation: Fixed deposits, since they have no entry load or management charges. 7. Tax benefits of debt mutual funds and bank fixed deposits Fixed deposits interests are considered incomes and come under income taxes (if you are taxable, of course). Moreover, there is a TDS (Tax Deducted at Source) at the rate of 10. 3% p. a. if your total cumulative interest on all FD is more than Rs. 10,000 in any financial year. Similarly, short term capital gains of debt funds are considered income and are accordingly taxable. For long term capital gains, tax is 10% without indexation or 20% with indexation. However, dividends received on debt mutual funds are tax free. Mutual Funds Managers Recommendation: Mutual funds are better than fixed deposits in terms of tax benefits, unless the latter offers any special scheme that is exempted from IT. So, should you invest in mutual funds or fixed deposits? We repeat, this decision is yours. If you are young and come from the average middle and upper middle class (at least), you can supposedly take more risk and should go for investing in mutual funds. Mutual Fund:Mutual funds are investment companies that pool money from investors at large and offer to sell and buy back its shares on a continuous basis and use the capital thus raised to invest in securities of different companies. In this your amount is invested in different companies according to percentage ratio. Below are our best reading on mutual fund: * What Mutual Fund do with investor’s Money * Concept of Mutual Funds * Benefits of Mutual Fund * What is Net Asset Value (NAV) * What Is Mutual Fund? * Post Office FD Vs Mutual Fund * Mutual Funds vs portfolio management When you deposit money with the bank, the bank promises to pay you a certain rate of interest for the period you specify. On the date of maturity, the bank is supposed to return the principal amount and interest to you. Whereas, in a mutual fund, the money you invest, is in turn invested by the manager, on your behalf, as per the investment strategy specified for the scheme. The profit, if any, less expenses of the manager, is reflected in the NAV or distributed as income. Likewise, loss, if any, with the expenses, is to be borne by you. Bank fixed deposits are more stringently regulated than are companies. They even operate under stricter requirements regarding Statutory Liquidity Ratio (SLR) and Cash Reserve Ratio (CRR) mandated by RBI. While the above are causes for comfort, bank deposits too are subject to default risk. However, given the political and economic impact of bank defaults, the Government as well as Reserve Bank of India (RBI) try to ensure that banks do not fail. Further, bank deposits up to Rs 1 lakh are protected by the Deposit Insurance and Credit Guarantee Corporation (DICGC), so long as the bank has paid the required insurance premium of 5 paise per annum for every Rs 100 of deposits. The monetary ceiling of Rs 1 lakh is for all the deposits in all the branches of a bank, held by the depositor in the same capacity and right. Please Note: Bank fixed deposit is completely secure and gives a fixed return – the interest earned is taxable. Mutual Fund debt instruments issued by corporates, banks, rbi. They are not completely secure (very little risk) the risk is mostly to returns since the return is not absolutely fixed, however returns are taxfree in the hands of the investor. Invest for long term in mutual fund SIP for more profit. What is meant by long term investment? Does it mean that buying at any price and wait for 3-4 years? Think twice. Give importance to Value; Give importance to Growth. Give importance to Price; these values are much more important statistics than Investment duration. Quote of the day: â€Å"A long term investment is like marriage; medium term investing is like an extra-marital affair and intra-day trading is like that risky one-night stand. † Best Reading. After several years, investors are finding that fixed deposit rates are climbing to respectable levels. While 90-day bank deposits are offering around 5 per cent returns, one-year deposits are yielding 7-8 per cent. As far as mutual funds are concerned, though the future of income funds, which invest in medium-and long-term debt papers, seems to be uncertain, short-term debt funds are giving returns in excess of 6. 5 per cent. On a post-tax basis, debt schemes fixed-maturity plans in particular seem to be the best option for investors looking for steady returns. Funds beat banks Even as banks are luring investors with higher fixed-deposit rates, mutual funds seem to be steeling a march over them with FMPs. The total assets under management under these schemes have nearly doubled this year. At the end of July, these schemes had a combined corpus of Rs 28,571 crore (Rs 285. 71 billion). According to industry sources, in August alone, 14 FMPs have so far been launched with varying maturity and the total collection is expected to be at least around Rs 4,000 crore (Rs 40 billion). The AMCs that have launched FMPs this month include Reliance, ABN AMRO, Principal, HSBC, UTI, HDFC, LIC, Prudential ICICI, JM Financial, DBS Chola and SBI. Essentially targeted at corporate and high networth investors, FMPs combine the tax efficiency of mutual funds with the safety of fixed deposits. The current rates on FMPs are as attractive as bank deposit rates and, thanks to the lower taxes on mutual funds, the post-tax returns on FMPs are better. Currently, 90-day FMPs are offering around 6. 85-7. 10 per cent, while one-year FMPs are generating around 8. 0 per cent pre-tax returns. HDFC Mutuals 26-month FMP yields 8. 45 per cent for corporate investors and 8. 10 per cent for retail investors. These schemes usually come with a quarterly or annual term, and the shorter-term schemes are a huge hit with corporate investors, who usually seek to lower the tax incidence. Mutual funds charge as low as 5-10 basis points as expenses, which is abysmally low. Even for retail investors in the top income tax bracket, these schemes make sense. The tax edge As dividends of mutual funds attract only a dividend distribution tax of 22. 4 per cent for corporates and 14. 03 per cent for individual investors vis-? -vis interest on deposits and corporate bonds, charged at the marginal income tax rate, mutual funds give better post-tax returns. High networth individuals have a lot of appetite for these schemes as they generate significantly higher post-tax returns, says Sameer Kamdar, national head mutual funds, Mata Securities. Furthermore, income from mutual fund units held for more than a year is deemed to be capital gains and, hence, qualifies for indexation benefit. This reduces the tax incidence even more. Thus, while a 8. 1 per cent, one-year FMP would yield a post-tax return of 7. 2 per cent for an individual investor in the top income tax bracket (if he opts for the growth plan), a bank fixed-deposit offering a similar rate would yield only 5. 37 per cent net of tax. Even if you opt for the dividend plan, which is less tax-efficient compared to the growth plan, for more than one-year time horizon, you would come up with a post-tax return of 6. 96 per cent. The post-tax returns indicated above are based an indexation rate of 4. per cent. For the uninitiated, indexation is a method wherein returns are deflated to the extent of inflation. The tax is calculated only on the inflation index-adjusted returns. The idea is that tax on long-term capital gains must be charged only on the real returns earned by an investor. The inflation index is published by the income-tax department every year. Similarly, 90-day FMPs, which offer 7 per cent, would yie ld a post-tax return of 6. 01 per cent. Currently, JM Mutual and LIC are offering rates upwards of 7 per cent. The risk factor Though FMPs are projecting fairly high yields, these are only indicative returns. They produce predictable returns over the desired timeframe since the maturity of the portfolio matches the tenure of fund schemes. Unlike other schemes that suffer from volatility and, hence, risk of erosion in asset value, an FMP structured as closed-end funds carries no interest rate risk. Whether yields rise or fall, the asset value of these schemes is protected as deposits/ bonds are held to maturity. Still, they do not guarantee returns as bank deposits where the interest is assured do. Though FMPs have delivered the returns they have indicated so far, there could be a risk of asset-liability mismatch, and the investor may not finally get exactly the indicated yield. Says Dhirendra Kumar, chief executive officer of Value Research, a Delhi-based mutual fund tracking firm, Since there is no guarantee on the returns that funds give, there is a risk that investors may or may not eventually get the returns indicated even in case of FMPs, which are otherwise quite predictable. Besides, if you lock in funds in an FMP you dont have the option of liquidating it prematurely. But in case of bank deposits, you can withdraw your money without any penalty. However, the interest rate you earn on the deposit would be based on the period the money is invested for. For instance, if you break a one-year deposit after three months, you would be entitled to the interest rate applicable for the three-month deposit and not the one-year rate. In fact, since bank deposits can be withdrawn without any penalty, it is an ideal time for investors to close their old deposit accounts yielding lower returns and renew them at the prevailing rates. Other debt funds With uncertainty on interest rates receding, debt markets have rallied over the past one month. The 10-year benchmark yield has declined from 8. 5 per cent in mid-July to 7. 91 per cent now, and this has propped up the returns on debt fund schemes. Most categories of debt funds have delivered returns in excess of 6 per cent. Particularly, medium-term gilt and debt funds have generated over 10 per cent returns. Should you then begin to relook at income funds? May be, not yet. Fund managers warn that this kind of returns may not be sustainable. On the contrary, the debt market rally looks overdone and the market may be in for some correction. And if that happens, income funds may be back to square one. Moreover, the risk-return factor, today, is strongly in favour of short-term funds. The return differential between medium-term and short-term debt funds is quite narrow, and the choice must be obvious given that short-term funds offer far greater stability and slightly lower returns, says Kumar. Over the past one-month, short-term funds have seen a surge in returns too. This category has given an average return of 7. 2 per cent, which again compares favourably with bank deposits on a tax-adjusted basis. Comparative Study of Mutual Funds and Bank Deposits free essay sample Compare which is better! Comparison between mutual funds and fixed deposits is a long debate, especially when it comes to a comparison between fixed deposits and debt mutual funds. Even a few years ago, any conservative and risk averse investor would think investing in bank fixed deposits is better than mutual funds (debt or otherwise). Nevertheless, the market scenario has changed a lot in the recent years, and many a mutual funds family has come up with interest debt mutual fund schemes with guaranteed returns alongside capital appreciations. This makes the comparison between debt mutual funds versus fixed deposits more complex, and even the most risk averse investor (count my father! ) is led to think twice. That being said, whether you should invest in bank fixed deposits or debt mutual funds is no more a simple question as it used to be five-six years back, and needs a detailed examination and explanation. And, we at Mutual Funds Manager are here again to help you with a neutral comparison between fixed deposits and mutual funds. Arent we great? 🙂 So, mutual funds and fixed deposits, which is better? While only you can finally decide whether mutual funds or fixed deposit where to invest — depending on your risk taking abilities, return expectations, and investment horizons — let us try to analyse some key factors one by one and chalk out a comparison between bank FD and mutual funds. 1. Return on investments vary for mutual funds, but not bank deposits Needless to repeat, bank deposits offer you a fixed percentage of return, as would be agreed upon by the investor and the bank at the time of the investment. For example, if you put 50 thousand rupees in FD for 5 years and the agreed interest rate is 8% per annum, you will continue to enjoy the same interest rate throughout the tenure. On the other hand, debt mutual funds have no assured rate, and the return on investment for debt mutual funds depend completely on the market and the performance of the fund. Fluctuations in the money market impacts the NAV of the fund, thereby altering returns. Thus, a great advantage of bank fixed deposits is that, you will continue to earn the same interest rates even if the market goes down. Nevertheless, this very advantage of fixed deposits over mutual funds can actually turn out to be their great disadvantage. If the market goes up mutual funds will give more returns accordingly, but your FD will continue to yield in the same old rate. So, the actual question becomes, whether there is any chance of the Indian market going up in near future, especially following the recent recession? Yes, there is. At least, we think so. Market researches and predictions indicate that the Indian money market will go up in 2013, may get stagnant for a while in 2014, then taking another upward curve. Mutual Funds Managers Recommendation: For longer tenures, mutual funds are as good as fixed deposits, if not better. 2. Comparison between mutual funds fixed deposits: Inflation adjustment Inflation adjustment is a very important point while comparing mutual funds and fixed deposits. FDs dont come with inflation adjustment guarantees, and if the interest rate is lower than the inflation rate, you actually end up losing the value of your money. In the FY 2011-12, the inflation rate in India was 7%, while the interest rate for around 1 year tenure was something around 7% as well [6. % for ICICI and HDFC banks, 6. 75% for Citibank and HSBC, 7. 10% for Axis and Yes Bank and so on. Higher rates are there, but for lump-sum investments like 1 crore. ]. Thus, if you have invested in bank FDs for the last FY, you either failed to beat inflation or ended up with minimal inflation adjusted positive returns. On the other hand, at least half a dozen mutual funds yielded returns greater than 8% (some as high as 12-14%), thereby giving you handsome inflation adjusted returns. Usually, mutual funds outrun inflation and always give positive, real returns. Mutual Funds Managers Recommendation: Unless your fixed deposits give high interest rates like 9-9. 5%, mutual funds are better. 3. Mutual funds and fixed deposits: Capital appreciation When it come to capital appreciation, mutual funds are better than fixed deposits, because of the equity investment. In longer time periods, market changes result in increasing interest rates. And, your mutual funds manager is there with all the expertise and professionalism to ensure a better capital appreciation. Mutual Funds Managers Recommendation: Debt funds. No second thought. 4. Mutual funds or fixed deposits, which one is more liquid? In terms of liquidity, these days both fixed deposits and mutual funds are almost same. Fixed deposits are actually meant for long lock in periods, but most banks allow premature withdrawals with a nominal penalty (usually 1%). The interest rate calculation for bank fixed deposit withdrawals is done on how long the money was parked. Mutual funds are equally liquid; you can take out any number of units within a couple of days. The return for premature withdrawal of mutual funds units is done on the prevalent NAV of the fund. Usually, there is an exit load of 1% for premature withdrawals before 1 year. Mutual Funds Managers Recommendation: Almost equal. For premature withdrawals beyond 1 year, mutual funds are slightly better because of nil exit load. 5. Risk factor of mutual funds and fixed deposits The only reason why most investors prefer fixed deposits to debt mutual funds is the assured return of the capital. On the other hands, returns from investments in mutual funds are subject to the volatility of the market, and may result in low or even negative returns. An investor should be wise enough to judge the quality of the investment instrument and thereby minimizing risk factors. Mutual Funds Managers Recommendation: For an extremely risk averse investor, fixed deposits are the only risk-free investment options. However, less risk means less return. Now, you decide! 6. Cost of investments in mutual funds and bank fixed deposits Investing in bank fixed deposits costs nothing. On the other hand, there is a minimum charge for mutual funds investments management and fund distribution, borne by the investor irrespective of returns. In other words, no matter whether your return on mutual funds investments is positive or negative, you have to bear an expense as the fees of fund management. Sometimes, entry loads are there as well, but quite rarely. Mutual Funds Managers Recommendation: Fixed deposits, since they have no entry load or management charges. 7. Tax benefits of debt mutual funds and bank fixed deposits Fixed deposits interests are considered incomes and come under income taxes (if you are taxable, of course). Moreover, there is a TDS (Tax Deducted at Source) at the rate of 10. 3% p. a. if your total cumulative interest on all FD is more than Rs. 10,000 in any financial year. Similarly, short term capital gains of debt funds are considered income and are accordingly taxable. For long term capital gains, tax is 10% without indexation or 20% with indexation. However, dividends received on debt mutual funds are tax free. Mutual Funds Managers Recommendation: Mutual funds are better than fixed deposits in terms of tax benefits, unless the latter offers any special scheme that is exempted from IT. So, should you invest in mutual funds or fixed deposits? We repeat, this decision is yours. If you are young and come from the average middle and upper middle class (at least), you can supposedly take more risk and should go for investing in mutual funds.

Monday, March 23, 2020

Technical Terms (Most Important and Concerned) Essay Example

Technical Terms (Most Important and Concerned) Essay A copy of an original manuscript is called Apograph. ARCHIVES Organized body of public records or historical documents preserved in a repository. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED A phrase inserted in a book signifying that its copy right is reserved and its violation will be actionable and that the privilege of reproducing it in any form will not be granted without the consent of the owner of the copyright. ASSOCIATED BOOK A book which is written about another book. AUTOGRAPH 1. A person’s signature. 2. A manuscript in the author’s own hand writing. BASTARD TITLE (HALF TITLE) The brief title of a book in which the wordings of the full title is abbreviated and which is usually printed on a separate leaf preceding the main title page. BEST SELLER A current popular book in extensive demand and sold in large numbers. BIANNUAL A publication issued twice a year. BIBLIOLATORY Reverence and respect for books BIBLIOMANIA Madness for books. (Excessive passion for collecting and owing books). BIBLIOMANIAC One who suffering from bibliomania. BIBLIOPHILE A lover of books particularly of their format and physical make up. BIBLIOPEGIC A book binder, one who works to bind the books. BIBLIOTHECA Library is a place or building or store where collected books are arranged according to a systematic order. BIBLIOTHERAPY Cure of diseases with the help of reading books. BOOK RARITIES Scarce books of which only a few copies are available any where. BOOK REVIEW An evaluation of the contents, literary worth etc, especially a recently published book, published in a periodical or newspaper. BULLETIN A regular publication of an organization, society etc with a brief statement of the latest news concerning the issuing organization. BOOK We will write a custom essay sample on Technical Terms (Most Important and Concerned) specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Technical Terms (Most Important and Concerned) specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Technical Terms (Most Important and Concerned) specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer The book is defined as a collection of sheet of papers written, printed or typed, string and bound to illustrate further the concept of book. It has many folded sheets of papers which continue writing. When the page number are 49 or more than 49 it will be named as book excluding the cover pages. When pages are less than 49it will be especially named as pamphlet (decided in General Conference of UNESCO 1964). A non periodical printed publication of at least 49 pages, exclusive of cover pages. UNESCO. Dr. P. N. Gour. BYNAME (NICK NAME) A fanciful name in addition to or in place of proper name. . g Hamidullah Jan is called Hameedi. CANCEL The corrected replacement of a cancelled leaf or leaves of a book containing a textural error. BIBLIOGRAPHY List of books and other reading material, which record the information, describe the information, disseminate the information and does not index the information, not being necessarily of one collection or library. BIENNIAL A publication issued o nce in two years. BI-MONTHLY A serial publication issued once in two months. BI-WEEKLY (FORTNIGHTLY) A periodical which is published once in two weeks. BLURB (BOOK JACKET, DUST COVER, BOOK COVER, WRAPPER) Publisher’s description and praise of a book usually printed on the front flap of a book jacket. BOOK Book is an acronym of â€Å"Built in orderly organized knowledge†. â€Å"In education in Pakistan† written by Dr. R. A. Farooq. BOOK EXCHANGE An arrangement whereby a library exchanges its duplicate or discarded material with other library. BOOK LABEL (BOOK PLATE) A label pasted in a book to mark its ownership. CAPTION The heading at the beginning of the text, or of a chapter or section of a book, or of an article. CAPTION TITLE The title printed at beginning of a chapter or section of a book or at the too of each page. CATCHWORD A word given at the bottom of the page after the last line, such word being the first in the first line at the top of the following page. CHANGED TITLE The current title of a book which had originally been published with a different title, e. g, Ceramic in Pakistan old Title pottery in Pakistan change Title. CHARGE To record the loan of a book to reader. CLIPPING (PRESS CUTTINGS) A piece cut form a newspaper or periodical usually containing an important new or some writing worth preservation for the use of readers. For example Afghanistan, Kashmir, ECO, UNO, Pak, Middle East, Nuclear weapon etc. COLLABORATOR One who is associated with another in the writing of a book. COMPOUND NAME A name made up of two or more proper names. COPY RIGHT DATE The date on which copy right is granted in respect of an individual work, usually printed on the reverse of the title page. CORRIGENDA: (ERRATA) A printed list of correction of errors in the text of a book, notices after document was printed and inserted either before or after the printed text. CURATOR A person who has the charge of a museum, art gallery or any special collection. DEDICATION The author’s inscription in a book offering it to a person as a mark of respect or affection or gratitude towards that person. DOCUMENT A record of mental thought expressed in language, written on paper. EDITION The no of copies printed at one time and from one unchanged setting of types. An edition may comprise a no of impressions usually printed from the same types or plates. Different editions may embody an identical text or varying texts. END PAPERS One or more blank leaves inserted by the binder at the beginning and the end of a book. EPHEMERA Pamphlet, cutting and other materials of ephemeral interest and value. FLY LEAF A blank leaf at the beginning or end of a book. FOOT NOTE A note at the foot of a page, giving a reference, an authority or an explanation or elucidation of some matter in the text marked above on the page. FOREWORD: (PRE-AMBLE) An introductory preface of a book by the author stating the reason for writing and enunciation of his theme. FRONTISPIECE A pictorial representation or illustration in the beginning of a book, usually facing or preceding it title page. GAZATTEER A geographical reference work usually arranged alphabetically, giving descriptive, geographical, historical or statistical information about places written about. GLOSSARY An alphabetical list of technical terms concerned with any specific subject together with their definition or elucidations. HARD BINDING Binding in hard board covered with cloth or paper. IMPRESSION All copies of a book printed at the same time from the same setting or types. INDEX A systematically arranged alphabetical list of names, subjects etc, together with page nos where they occur, usually placed at the end of a book or other publications. INTRODUCTION The preliminary section of a book, usually explaining or defining its subject-matter, or giving a general study of the subject, often written by some one other than the author. LEAFLET A separate sheet of printed matter often folded but not stitched. LEGAL DEPOSIT Deposit of one or more copies of every book or other publication, printed or published in the country, in certain libraries, according to the copyright law or another related law of the country. LIBRARY DISCOUNT Rebate allowed by the book trade on the cost of books purchased by a library. LITHOGRAPHY Process of writing or drawing design on a stone and of processing printed impressions there from. MAGAZINE A periodical publication for general reading of which separate issues are published at regular intervals, containing articles on various subjects, by different authors. MONOGRAPH A separate, systematic and complete treatise on a single subject. NEW IMPRESSION Fresh printing of a book from standing type. PAMPHLET A non-periodical publication of at least five but not more than 48 pages, excluding cover pages. PAPERBACKS Books bound with paper covers, usually to reduce their cost price. PARTIAL TITLE The sub-title or alternative title or the secondary part of the title given on the title page. PICTOGRAPH A pictorial illustration telling a story by representing an object or an idea. (A thirsty crow, Greedy dog etc. ). PLATE A page containing illustrative matter bound or pasted in a book and usually not included in its pagination. PREFACE A statement written by the author, at the beginning of a book, giving its scope, reasons for writing and the class of readers for whom it is intended. OCTAVO A sheet of paper folded three times to form a section of eight leaves or sixteen pages. OCTAVO EDITION An edition issued in octavo form, i. e, of books having section of 8 leaves or 16 pages and whose height is between 20 to 25 cm. PRELIMINARIES Those parts of the book which precede the first page of the text, viz: half title, frontispiece, title page, dedication, acknowledgment, list of contents and illustrations, abbreviations, foreword or preface, introduction etc. PSEUDONYM A name used by an author which is not his real name in order to conceal his identity. PUBLISHING HOUSE A firm engaged in the trade of publishing books. RECTO Right hand page of an open book, usually bearing an odd Page number. REFERENCE LIBRARIAN A librarian incharge of a reference library or who is incharge of reference department in a library. REFERENCE BOOKS Books such as dictionaries, encyclopedias, gazetteers, year books, directories, indexes, bibliographies etc, which are compiled to supply definite pieces of information and are meant to be referred to for such information rather than to be read thorough. REFERENCES The list of publications to which an author has made specific reference in the course of his work, generally appended at the end of each chapter or at the end of the book or the article. REFERENCE SERVICE (REFERENCE WORK) The provision and organization by a library of a service which is directly concerned with assistance to readers in their search for information on various subjects, and in using the resources of the library in study and research. REPRINT An identical copy of a book, printed from the same type or with type set again by without any substantial alteration in the text. REVIEW An evaluation of literary work. REVIEW COPY A copy of a book sent free by the publisher to an individual scholar, or to a newspaper or magazine for review purposes. REVIEWING PERIODICAL A periodical publication largely devoted to reviews of new books. REVISED EDITION A new edition of a book in which printing and textual errors have been corrected, and new material added. REVISED IMPRESSION (PRINTING) A new impression of a book for which revisions have been incorporated in the original setting of types. ROYALTY Payment made to an author by the publisher of a book usually on a percentage basis of its retail price. RUNNING TITLE The title which is repeated at the head of each page of a book. SEMI ANNUAL A periodical or any other serial publication, published twice a year. SEMI WEEKLY A periodical issued twice a week. SHORT TITLE Shortened form of the title of a book enough to identify it in catalogue or bibliography, generally used in short cataloguing. SPINE The back of the cover of a book, which usually bears, the title, author and sometimes the publisher’s name. STANDARD BOOK (WORK) A book recognized as of permanent value because of its subject content or the style of writing. STANDARD EDITION The edition of an author’s book which is of a better quality than a normal or cheaper edition. SUB-TITLE A secondary or sub-ordinate title of a book following the main title which is usually explanatory, or modificatory of the main title. SUMMARY The substance or general idea of any written matter presented in a brief form. SURNAME A family name, usually used together with the personal name. TERMS Any word or phrase used in a precise or definite sense. TITLE 1. â€Å"Name of a work† Dr. S. S. Ranganathan. 2. The word or words by which a literary or intellectual work is designated on its title page which may also include the sub-title, alternative title or any elucidatory or descriptive matter relating to the title. TREATISE A formal systematic essay, or book on some subject. VERSION One of several forms of exposition in the same or another language of a work. VERSE The left hand page of an open book, usually bearing an even page number. XY-LOGRAPHY Printing from engraved blocks of wood. YEAR BOOK An annual volume, published every year, containing current information of a variable nature, also reviews of the happenings during the year and statistical statements of annual significance. WATER MARK A mark of water or trade mark is prepared and can be seen on any sheet of paper, specially hand made paper when holds to light. EXTRA BINDING A trade term for the best work in binding. FINISHING It is comprising of lettering, tooling and polishing of the book. FOREDGE The front edge of the leaves. FORWARDING Comprises all operations between sewing and finishing. SIGNATURE The letters or figures placed on first page of each sheet. CONCAVE The inside curve. CONVEX The outside curve. COLOPHONE A statement given at the end of the text of a book giving its title, subject, writer’s printers or publisher’s name and date and place of printing. Sometimes one or more of these items is omitted. IMPERFECTIONS Sheets rejected by the binder and returned to the printer to be replace. HEAD AND TAIL The top and bottom of the book. EMBOSS PRINTING Printing in raised characters for the blind. ADDENDA Additional matters essential to the completeness of the text of a book, usually added after the text. For example at page 85, at line 13 (After Automatic data processing add: see also Data processing).

Friday, March 6, 2020

Free Essays on Henry V

Henry V Throughout the movie Henry V accurate portrayals of the age, speech, and clothing of the time are displayed. The movie depicts Henry V’s rise to the throne and part in the Hundred Years War with vague accuracy, but gets the important points across. However, the movie generalizes some events and creates some scenes for dramatic effect. While on a large scale the movie is historically accurate it strays from the truth several times to entertain its audience. Henry V stumbles past Henry’s rather interesting childhood and enters into the main plot of his life very quickly, leaving much to be told of the events omitted by Shakespeare. Henry was most likely brought up by his uncle Henry Beaufort. Henry was a very accomplished individual from a young age, and leaving out details from his childhood is counterproductive to the building of his character which the desires. Henry was a soldier beginning in his teenage years. At a mere fourteen years he was a member of the Welsh forces who fought against Owen Glendower, who was leading a rebellion against Henry’s father, Henry IV (Owen) . After only two years of service he commanded his father’s forces in the battle of Shrewsbury, in which he was wounded (Britannia / Columbia) . These significant events show that Henry was quite an able king and also a very soldierly person. The movie illustrates Henry’s ability as an orator in the first scene, in which a French messenger is shown sending a gift from his master. The gift is in exchange for peace and Henry not seeking his interests in annexing lands in France that England had previously held. The messenger states that his master wishes to trade a â€Å"ton of treasure†, which turns out to be a box of tennis balls. Henry is furious and quickly launches into a masterful speech in which he condemns the master’s action, saying that he will have quite a match with France when he enters the country, an... Free Essays on Henry V Free Essays on Henry V Henry V Throughout the movie Henry V accurate portrayals of the age, speech, and clothing of the time are displayed. The movie depicts Henry V’s rise to the throne and part in the Hundred Years War with vague accuracy, but gets the important points across. However, the movie generalizes some events and creates some scenes for dramatic effect. While on a large scale the movie is historically accurate it strays from the truth several times to entertain its audience. Henry V stumbles past Henry’s rather interesting childhood and enters into the main plot of his life very quickly, leaving much to be told of the events omitted by Shakespeare. Henry was most likely brought up by his uncle Henry Beaufort. Henry was a very accomplished individual from a young age, and leaving out details from his childhood is counterproductive to the building of his character which the desires. Henry was a soldier beginning in his teenage years. At a mere fourteen years he was a member of the Welsh forces who fought against Owen Glendower, who was leading a rebellion against Henry’s father, Henry IV (Owen) . After only two years of service he commanded his father’s forces in the battle of Shrewsbury, in which he was wounded (Britannia / Columbia) . These significant events show that Henry was quite an able king and also a very soldierly person. The movie illustrates Henry’s ability as an orator in the first scene, in which a French messenger is shown sending a gift from his master. The gift is in exchange for peace and Henry not seeking his interests in annexing lands in France that England had previously held. The messenger states that his master wishes to trade a â€Å"ton of treasure†, which turns out to be a box of tennis balls. Henry is furious and quickly launches into a masterful speech in which he condemns the master’s action, saying that he will have quite a match with France when he enters the country, an...

Tuesday, February 18, 2020

Impacts of Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss as a Mathematician Term Paper

Impacts of Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss as a Mathematician - Term Paper Example In his lifetime, Gauss had hardly made a contribution to the field of mathematics. It is said that the German mathematician was aloof to the pubic world of the mathematicians notable in his days. Gauss only communicated to a few of his trusted friends who were also strongly inclined to mathematics. Besides Bolyai, Schumacher was one of Gauss’s trusted correspondence in which the latter confided to the former about his spending a â€Å"considerable time on geometry† (Tent, 2006, p. 214). On the other hand, upon the death of the gifted mathematician -- and the subsequent discovery of his mathematical notes and ideas -- the world of mathematics had never been the same. Particularly his contribution to the shaping of the so-called non-Euclidean geometry, Gauss had made an impact to the sphere of geometry. His schoolmate Bolyai had asked him, for several times, pertaining to his view to Euclid’s fifth postulate -- also known as the parallel postulate. But Gauss did no t disclose his discovery concerning the existence of the non-Euclidean geometry for the reason that he did not want to â€Å"rock the boat† (Tent, 2006, p. 215). True, Gauss’s non-Euclidean geometry -- first he called it as anti-Euclidean -- had caused a stir in the area of mathematics marked in the late 18th century. Non-Euclidean geometry is basically defined as an area in geometry in which Euclid’s first four postulates are held but the fifth postulate has a quite different and distinct version in contrast to what is stated in the Elements (Weisstein, 2011). Among various versions of non-Euclidean geometry, the so-called hyperbolic geometry is where Gauss belongs to. In one of their conversations, Gauss revealed to Schumacher about his anti-Euclidean geometry: â€Å"I realized that there also had to be triangles whose three angles add up to more or less than 1800 in the non-Euclidean world. I had it all mapped out† (Tent, 2006, 214, my italics). Here, Gauss categorized the fundamental elements of his newly found mathematics. That is to say, Gauss’s non-Euclidean geometry is a departure from two-dimensional geometry characterized in Euclidean mathematics. Gauss’s hyperbolic geometry, in fact, works greatly in three-dimensional geometry or space. Thence, the impact of Gauss’s mathematical discovery, if not innovation, was quite evident especially within the field of mathematics. For one, Gauss had opened up a new world or knowledge about the wider space or scope of mathematics, particularly geometry. That is, man does not live in a narrow two-dimensional space. Based from this paradigm (i.e., hyperbolic geometry), one can explore the multifarious possibilities laid open by non-Euclidean geometry. Perhaps the greatest impact of Gauss’s hyperbolic mathematics is found in the sphere of astronomy. In 1801, for instance, Gauss’s mathematics had greatly facilitated the discovery of a dwarf planet named Ceres (Tyson, 2004). Evidently, this is the triumph of mathematics. Utilizing the non-Euclidean geometry, it became possible for man to calculate the universe even without the use of advanced technology such as the telescope. Using Gauss’s hyperbolic geometry, man is able to see the cosmos beyond the Euclidean geometry can offer. Space, after all, is three-dimensional -- be it space in/on earth or in the universe. Generally, non-Euclidean geo